This post is an explanation of the following tweet I made:

Let me preface this with I am not a security expert. Just a paranoid front end developer. If you want advice from actual security experts, please hire the good people over at ^lift.

I understand disabling inline styles is controversial. They are super convenient. With the emergence of single page app CSS tooling, it seems inline styles are also becoming more frequently used.

In no way am I intending on spreading FUD; just simply trying to bring awareness to an often ignored concern with front end development.

What are inline styles?

Inline <style> tags:

body { background-color: red; }

Inline <style> tag created via JavaScript:

var style = document.createElement('style')
style.innerHTML = 'body { background-color: red; }'

Inline style attributes:

<a href="#" style="color:red;">Click</a>

Setting the style attribute via JavaScript:

document.body.setAttribute('style', 'background-color:red;')

Single Page App Libraries

Single page app focused frameworks/libraries like React, Ember, Angular, Mercury, etc make it easier to create inline styles. As such, there seems to be a rising trend using inline styles and many "modular CSS" solutions are emerging.

Be aware, most of these solutions rely on inline styles via a inline <style> tag and/or inline style attribute. Each have different methods of escaping (or not escaping) data as it's written inline using one of the above methods.

I'm not advocating any of these libraries are insecure nor providing any example exploits here.

However I am suggesting, that maybe overusing inline styles right next to all that dynamic user data, might not be the best idea.

Attacking with CSS

The primary vulnerability of CSS comes when an attacker is allowed to inject data into content that will be displayed to other users.


Let's say we have an discussion board app. Users can start new threads and respond to existing ones. Users create messages by inputing text into a <textarea/>. The contents are stored in a database and then shown to other users when they visit the page.

That data on our page is shown unescaped. Meaning a malicious user could enter their own tags as their "comment". Those tags get executed for every other user that views that comment on your page.

Let's ignore the inline <script> tag injection risk. You know, similar to the attack that is currently DDOSing github as I write this. Let's focus on CSS.

A malicious user could do quite a few things with just CSS:

Deface your website

An attacker can use your website to spread their message:

body::before { content: "Thanks Obama"; }

Create a phishing attack

An attacker could modify existing elements to trick a user into exposing sensitive information: {
  content: "Please enter your password to post a comment...";
.container::before { content: url(; }
.another::before { content: url(; }
body::before { content: url(; }
/* ... and so on ... */

Troll the product team attack

If you were a malicious user and really disliked a company, an unsecured inline style would be an interesting way subtly deteriorate the company's product.

Maybe add an animation delay to make the site appear slower? Misalign elements so the site looks sloppy? Make particular items disappear to cause confusion?

Not all attacks will be technical in nature.

Old Browsers

In old IE <8 you could use CSS expressions to run JavaScript in CSS. Known as "Dynamic Properties."

#modal {
  position: absolute;
  top: expression(document.body.clientHeight / 2);

Easy to understand that running JavaScript in CSS is not a good idea. Although barely anyone still uses IE<8. Hopefully an attacker just injects:

alert('wow you\'re making this too easy for me, please upgrade your browser.')

It's not just old IE though, Firefox has -moz-binding in which in older versions could be used to obtain cookie data.

Some older browsers don't deal with CDATA consistently so silly things like the following are possible:

<!-- </style><script>alert('whoops')</script> -->

There are a number of other security issues with older browsers. Admittedly not as big of a concern as older browsers get used less and less these days. But the history shows, browser vendors will make security mistakes.

and on, and on...

Here is an XSS Filter Evasion Cheat Sheet from OWASP:

With a proper Content Security Policy in place, these attacks would not be possible.

What is a Content Security Policy?

A Content Security Policy (CSP) is a HTTP header that tells the browser which things you consider safe and which you do not.

By default, your browser will blindly trust that everything is safe (besides same origin policy violations, of course).

To enable a CSP, you set the HTTP header Content-Security-Policy. Specifically to disable inline styles, the header is:

Content-Security-Policy: style-src 'self'

Which will block and throw an error in your browser console with each inline style attempt on your page.

There are many other policies you can configure. I highly recommend that you enact at least some CSP to prevent XSS attacks.

Here is a fantastic article that explains CSP in a lot more detail.

Attackers are more clever than you

An easy excuse is,

"just ensure all user data is escaped and inline styles are safe."

Considering myself and most of us are not security experts; there are likely far more clever XSS attacks then ones I've shown here.

So ask yourself:

  • How solid is your escaping method?
  • Are you sure you're escaping all the possible injection places?
  • How, over the life span of your app, will you ensure those injection places remain locked down?

It is also important to remember browsers are written by humans. Humans make mistakes. If you limit what a malicious user can do with a browser you are reducing the risk of those yet known mistakes being exploited.

If you disable inline styles in your CSP, you don't need to worry about the above questions.

Examples Remedied

For most circumstances I can think of, inline styles are just for developer convenience.

For example let's say we have a table and want to selectively hide columns. Our user toggles column visibility and we conveniently dynamically generate the CSS.

But you don't really need to do that. Unless you have an infinite number of columns you can likely pre-generate the column visibility conditions and then just modify the class of your table to toggle column visibility:

.table.table-hide-col1 .table-col1 {
  display: none;
.table.table-hide-col2 .table-col2 {
  display: none;
.table.table-hide-col3 .table-col3 {
  display: none;
.table.table-hide-col4 .table-col4 {
  display: none;

Then just hide the columns with classes:

<table class="table table-hide-col1 table-hide-col3">
  <td class="table-col1"></td>
  <td class="table-col2"></td>
  <td class="table-col3"></td>
  <td class="table-col4"></td>

Or get clever with nth-child, etc

Another example is user configurable column width. A user can set their columns to a width between 0 and Infinity. We can't pre-generate CSS to cover all those conditions.

So we need to dynamically set our CSS in this use case. Interestingly, setting doesn't violate our unsafe inline CSP.

So instead of dynamically building a style attribute which has the potential for content injection:

var col1 = document.querySelector('.table-col1')
col1.setAttribute('style', 'width:' + userColumnWidth + 'px;')

Just explicitly set the CSS property with:

var col1 = document.querySelector('.table-col1') = userColumnWidth + 'px'


Yes, I know I am being totally paranoid. In a lot of these circumstances, it would be terribly hard for malicious user data to be injected by an attacker.

But it only takes 1 mistake.

So if you're not planning on disabling inline styles outright, at the very least minimize your usage of inline styles to use cases where it's absolutely necessary.

I too think CSS as modules is very intriguing but given the above security concerns; perhaps inline styles isn't the solution.